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Michael Pollan wrote in 1998 about how "domestication" shows itself in "our knack for marrying the fruits of nature to the desires of culture", how domestication of apples has been overdone, and the need to "cultivate" wildness in order to make commercial apples less dependent on humans. "Luckily...wildness...can thrive even in the straight lines and right angles of an apple orchard." Right on topic for us--thank you, Michael!

http://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/breaking-ground-the-call-of-the-wild-apple/

 

Links to further reading about Kazakhstan's wild apple forests: the need to protect the source of origin, the threats to the wild apple forests, the impact of climate, why commercial eating apples need help from wild apples, and more:

http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/8/11/406/htm  (Wild Apple Growth and Climate Change in Southeast Kazakhstan)

http://astanatimes.com/2015/03/concept-of-organic-farming-planted-growing-slowly-in-kazakhstan/

http://azh.kz/en/news/view/4789

https://orionmagazine.org/article/the-fatherland-of-apples/

http://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/breaking-ground-the-call-of-the-wild-apple/

http://sorendreier.com/the-last-wild-apple-forests/

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-10-16/kazakhstans-crisis-of-vanishing-apples

http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/the-last-wild-apple-forests

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8305211.stm

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/apples-of-eden-saving-the-wild-ancestor-of-modern-apples/

https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/nov/08/kazakhstan-wild-apples-endangered-alys-fowler